深入理解java SPI机制

What?

SPI机制(Service Provider Interface)其实源自服务提供者框架(Service Provider Framework,参考【EffectiveJava】page6),是一种将服务接口与服务实现分离以达到解耦、大大提升了程序可扩展性的机制。引入服务提供者就是引入了spi接口的实现者,通过本地的注册发现获取到具体的实现类,轻松可插拔

典型实例:jdbc的设计

通常各大厂商(如Mysql、Oracle)会根据一个统一的规范(java.sql.Driver)开发各自的驱动实现逻辑。客户端使用jdbc时不需要去改变代码,直接引入不同的spi接口服务即可。
Mysql的则是com.mysql.jdbc.Drive,Oracle则是oracle.jdbc.driver.OracleDriver。

这里写图片描述

伪代码如下:

	//注:从jdbc4.0之后无需这个操作,spi机制会自动找到相关的驱动实现
	//Class.forName(driver);
	
	//1.getConnection()方法,连接MySQL数据库。有可能注册了多个Driver,这里通过遍历成功连接后返回。
	con = DriverManager.getConnection(mysqlUrl,user,password);
	//2.创建statement类对象,用来执行SQL语句!!
	Statement statement = con.createStatement();
	//3.ResultSet类,用来存放获取的结果集!!
	ResultSet rs = statement.executeQuery(sql);

jdbc连接源码分析

1. java.sql.DriverManager静态块初始执行,其中使用spi机制加载jdbc具体实现

 //java.sql.DriverManager.java   
 //当调用DriverManager.getConnection(..)时,static会在getConnection(..)执行之前被触发执行
    /**
     * Load the initial JDBC drivers by checking the System property
     * jdbc.properties and then use the {@code ServiceLoader} mechanism
     */
    static {
        loadInitialDrivers();
        println("JDBC DriverManager initialized");
    }

2.loadInitialDrivers()中完成了引入的数据库驱动的查找以及载入,本示例只引入了oracle厂商的mysql,我们具体看看。

//java.util.serviceLoader.java

   private static void loadInitialDrivers() {
        String drivers;
        try {
            drivers = AccessController.doPrivileged(new PrivilegedAction<String>() {
                public String run() {
                //使用系统变量方式加载
                    return System.getProperty("jdbc.drivers");
                }
            });
        } catch (Exception ex) {
            drivers = null;
        }
        //如果spi 存在将使用spi方式完成提供的Driver的加载
        // If the driver is packaged as a Service Provider, load it.
        // Get all the drivers through the classloader
        // exposed as a java.sql.Driver.class service.
        // ServiceLoader.load() replaces the sun.misc.Providers()

        AccessController.doPrivileged(new PrivilegedAction<Void>() {
            public Void run() {
//查找具体的provider,就是在META-INF/services/***.Driver文件中查找具体的实现。
                ServiceLoader<Driver> loadedDrivers = ServiceLoader.load(Driver.class);
                Iterator<Driver> driversIterator = loadedDrivers.iterator();

                /* Load these drivers, so that they can be instantiated.
                 * It may be the case that the driver class may not be there
                 * i.e. there may be a packaged driver with the service class
                 * as implementation of java.sql.Driver but the actual class
                 * may be missing. In that case a java.util.ServiceConfigurationError
                 * will be thrown at runtime by the VM trying to locate
                 * and load the service.
                 *
                 * Adding a try catch block to catch those runtime errors
                 * if driver not available in classpath but it's
                 * packaged as service and that service is there in classpath.
                 */
                 //查找具体的实现类的全限定名称
                try{
                    while(driversIterator.hasNext()) {
                        driversIterator.next();//加载并初始化实现类
                    }
                } catch(Throwable t) {
                // Do nothing
                }
                return null;
            }
        });

        println("DriverManager.initialize: jdbc.drivers = " + drivers);

        if (drivers == null || drivers.equals("")) {
            return;
        }
        String[] driversList = drivers.split(":");
....
        }
    }

3.java.util.ServiceLoader 加载spi实现类.

上一步的核心代码如下,我们接着分析:


//java.util.serviceLoader.java

ServiceLoader<Driver> loadedDrivers = ServiceLoader.load(Driver.class);
Iterator<Driver> driversIterator = loadedDrivers.iterator();
try{
  //查找具体的实现类的全限定名称
     while(driversIterator.hasNext()) {
     //加载并初始化实现
         driversIterator.next();
     }
 } catch(Throwable t) {
 // Do nothing
 }

主要是通过ServiceLoader来完成的,我们按照执行顺序来看看ServiceLoader实现:

//初始化一个ServiceLoader,load参数分别是需要加载的接口class对象,当前类加载器
    public static <S> ServiceLoader<S> load(Class<S> service) {
        ClassLoader cl = Thread.currentThread().getContextClassLoader();
        return ServiceLoader.load(service, cl);
    }
    public static <S> ServiceLoader<S> load(Class<S> service,
                                            ClassLoader loader)
    {
        return new ServiceLoader<>(service, loader);
    }

遍历所有存在的service实现

        public boolean hasNext() {
            if (acc == null) {
                return hasNextService();
            } else {
                PrivilegedAction<Boolean> action = new PrivilegedAction<Boolean>() {
                    public Boolean run() { return hasNextService(); }
                };
                return AccessController.doPrivileged(action, acc);
            }
        }
	//写死的一个目录
       private static final String PREFIX = "META-INF/services/";

       private boolean hasNextService() {
            if (nextName != null) {
                return true;
            }
            if (configs == null) {
                try {
                    String fullName = PREFIX + service.getName();
                    //通过相对路径读取classpath中META-INF目录的文件,也就是读取服务提供者的实现类全限定名
                    if (loader == null)
                        configs = ClassLoader.getSystemResources(fullName);
                    else
                        configs = loader.getResources(fullName);
                } catch (IOException x) {
                    fail(service, "Error locating configuration files", x);
                }
            }
            //判断是否读取到实现类全限定名,比如mysql的“com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
”
            while ((pending == null) || !pending.hasNext()) {
                if (!configs.hasMoreElements()) {
                    return false;
                }
                pending = parse(service, configs.nextElement());
            }
            nextName = pending.next();//nextName保存,后续初始化实现类使用
            return true;//查到了 返回true,接着调用next()
        }
        public S next() {
            if (acc == null) {//用来判断serviceLoader对象是否完成初始化
                return nextService();
            } else {
                PrivilegedAction<S> action = new PrivilegedAction<S>() {
                    public S run() { return nextService(); }
                };
                return AccessController.doPrivileged(action, acc);
            }
        }
      private S nextService() {
            if (!hasNextService())
                throw new NoSuchElementException();
            String cn = nextName;//上一步找到的服务实现者全限定名
            nextName = null;
            Class<?> c = null;
            try {
            //加载字节码返回class对象.但并不去初始化(换句话就是说不去执行这个类中的static块与static变量初始化)
            //
                c = Class.forName(cn, false, loader);
            } catch (ClassNotFoundException x) {
                fail(service,
                     "Provider " + cn + " not found");
            }
            if (!service.isAssignableFrom(c)) {
                fail(service,
                     "Provider " + cn  + " not a subtype");
            }
            try {
	            //初始化这个实现类.将会通过static块的方式触发实现类注册到DriverManager(其中组合了一个CopyOnWriteArrayList的registeredDrivers成员变量)中
                S p = service.cast(c.newInstance());
                providers.put(cn, p);//本地缓存 (全限定名,实现类对象)
                return p;
            } catch (Throwable x) {
                fail(service,
                     "Provider " + cn + " could not be instantiated",
                     x);
            }
            throw new Error();          // This cannot happen
        }

上一步中,Sp = service.cast(c.newInstance()) 将会导致具体实现者的初始化,比如mysqlJDBC,会触发如下代码:

//com.mysql.jdbc.Driver.java
......
    private final static CopyOnWriteArrayList<DriverInfo> registeredDrivers = new CopyOnWriteArrayList<>();
......

    static {
        try {
		     //并发安全的想一个copyOnWriteList中方
            java.sql.DriverManager.registerDriver(new Driver());
        } catch (SQLException E) {
            throw new RuntimeException("Can't register driver!");
        }
    }

4.最终Driver全部注册并初始化完毕,开始执行DriverManager.getConnection(url, “root”, “root”)方法并返回。

使用实例

四个项目:spiInterface、spiA、spiB、spiDemo

spiInterface中定义了一个com.zs.IOperation接口。

spiA、spiB均是这个接口的实现类,服务提供者。

spiDemo作为客户端,引入spiA或者spiB依赖,面向接口编程,通过spi的方式获取具体实现者并执行接口方法。

├─spiA
│  └─src
│      ├─main
│      │  ├─java
│      │  │  └─com
│      │  │      └─zs
│      │  ├─resources
│      │  │  └─META-INF
│      │  │      └─services
│      │  └─webapp
│      │      └─WEB-INF
│      └─test
│          └─java
├─spiB
│  └─src
│      ├─main
│      │  ├─java
│      │  │  └─com
│      │  │      └─zs
│      │  ├─resources
│      │  │  └─META-INF
│      │  │      └─services
│      │  └─webapp
│      │      └─WEB-INF
│      └─test
│          └─java
├─spiDemo
│  └─src
│      ├─main
│      │  ├─java
│      │  │  └─com
│      │  │      └─zs
│      │  ├─resources
│      │  └─webapp
│      │      └─WEB-INF
│      └─test
│          └─java
└─spiInterface
    └─src
        ├─main
        │  ├─java
        │  │  └─com
        │  │      └─zs
        │  ├─resources
        │  └─webapp
        │      └─WEB-INF
        └─test
            └─java
                └─spiInterface

spiDemo


package com.zs;

import java.sql.Connection;
import java.sql.DriverManager;
import java.sql.ResultSet;
import java.sql.SQLException;
import java.sql.Statement;
import java.util.Iterator;
import java.util.ServiceLoader;

public class Launcher {

	public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
//		jdbcTest();
		showSpiPlugins();
		
	}
	private static void jdbcTest() throws SQLException {
		String url = "jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/test";
		Connection conn = DriverManager.getConnection(url, "root", "root");
		Statement statement = conn.createStatement();
		ResultSet set = statement.executeQuery("select * from test.user");
		while (set.next()) {
			System.out.println(set.getLong("id"));
			System.out.println(set.getString("userName"));
			System.out.println(set.getInt("age"));
		}
	}
	private static void showSpiPlugins() {
		ServiceLoader<IOperation> operations = ServiceLoader.load(IOperation.class);
		Iterator<IOperation> operationIterator = operations.iterator();
		
		while (operationIterator.hasNext()) {
			IOperation operation = operationIterator.next();
			System.out.println(operation.operation(6, 3));
		}
	}
}

SPI示例 完整代码

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